Historically, in China, to be considered scholarly, or a man of the arts - required years of study of The 4 Arts of the Scholar consist of what in Chinese are called QIN, QI, SHU, and HUA. Or, music, board game, calligraphy, painting.

In creating the works in the Arts of the Scholar series, the designs begin as conceptual studies, where function evolves with the development of the design and the interpretation of the Art. During this process, the function has to be re-assesssed in terms of its' daily role. Our preconceived ideas of that role, or the task required of the object can also be re-designed.